Endocrinology is a branch of practical medicine that deals with the treatment of the endocrine system and the disorders associated with it.
Today, it's not a secret for anyone that everything in our body is interconnected. This also applies to our endocrine glands (glands of internal secretion), which often in violation of their functions cause restlessness of the organs of other systems in the body. This causes sometimes uncharacteristic complaints of patients.
With the disruption of the endocrine system, diseases such as diseases of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, hypothalamic-pituitary system, obesity, diabetes mellitus are associated.
The main causes of endocrine disorders
Diffuse toxic goiter (Graves' disease) is an autoimmune disease caused by excessive secretion of thyroid hormones by the diffuse tissue of the thyroid gland, which leads to the poisoning of these hormones - thyrotoxicosis. Mostly women are ill, especially at the age of 30-50.
The symptoms of toxic goiter
Treatment of toxic goiter
Diabetes mellitus is a disease that is manifested by high blood sugar levels due to insufficient exposure to insulin. Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas, or rather beta cells from the islets of Langerhans. In case of diabetes it is absent (type I diabetes, or insulindependent diabetes) or the body's cells are not sufficiently react to it (diabetes type II or non-insulin dependent diabetes). Insulin regulates metabolism, primarily carbohydrates (sugars) as well as fats and proteins. In diabetes mellitus, due to insufficient exposure to insulin, there is a complex metabolic disorder, blood sugar (hyperglycemia) increases, sugar is excreted in the urine (glucosuria), acidic products of disturbed fat burning - ketone bodies (ketoacidosis) appear in the blood.
Symptoms of diabetes:
Treatment of diabetes
Diabetes, unfortunately, is incurable, treatment and support doctors are lifelong. When treating diabetes, the following tasks must be done:
Hypothyroidism is a condition caused by prolonged, persistent lack of thyroid hormones, the opposite of hyperthyroidism.
The symptoms of hypothyroidism
Treatment of hypothyroidism
Treatment is based on differential diagnostics. In complex treatment, substitution therapy is used with thyroid medications or, more often, synthetic thyroid hormones (thyroidin, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyrotoxicum, thyrotome-forte, thyreocomb). The dose is determined individually in each case.
Thyroid cancer is a malignant thyroid tumor that develops from follicular or from C-cells.
Symptoms of thyroid cancer
In most cases of thyroid cancer are asymptomatic. Most often the first sign of thyroid cancer is the appearance of a nodular formation in the thyroid gland or an increase in the cervical lymph nodes. However, thyroid nodules occur in many adults, and less than 5 % of the number of nodes are malignant. Sometimes the first sign of a disease is an enlarged lymph node. Later signs are pain in the front of the neck and a change in the voice. Thyroid cancer is usually detected in individuals with normal thyroid function, but signs of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism can be combined with a larger or more metastatic well-differentiated tumor. Nodal formations of the thyroid gland are a subject of special concern when detected in persons under 20 years of age. At this age, the presence of benign nodes is less likely, so the probability of their malignancy is much higher.
Treatment of thyroid cancer
The main method of treating thyroid cancer is a surgical operation called total thyroidectomy, which implies the complete removal of the entire thyroid gland. Depending on the form of the cancer, the stage of its development and the presence of metastases, and the availability of these prognostic markers, an organ-preserving operation - subtotal or hemithyroidectomy - can be considered. During the operation, regional lymph nodes (neck dissection) can be removed if there are or if there are suspicions of having metastases. The amount of intervention in each case is determined by the endocrine surgeon. In case of relapse, additional surgery may be required to remove metastatic foci in the lymph nodes of the neck and mediastinum.
Since thyroid cancer cells (with the exception of medullary cancer cells) are able to absorb and accumulate iodine, after complete removal of the thyroid gland with papillary and follicular carcinoma, a method of treatment with radioactive iodine can also be used.
After the operation, the patient also undergoes hormonal therapy to lower the level naturally produced by the pituitary gland of the hormone TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone).
Thyroidectomy - one of the types of surgical interventions on the thyroid gland, its complete removal.
The extraphascial technique of thyroidectomy is used to remove malignant tumors in order to adhere to the principles of radical surgery and ablastics and is combined with the removal of the regional neck lymphatics (bilateral cervical lymphadenectomy in different versions).
Insufficient adrenal cortex (Adesson's disease) is a nodocrine pathology in which the adrenal glands lose the ability to synthesize a sufficient amount of cortisol, aldosterone and androgens. Chronic adrenal insufficiency is equally common in men and women, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. Addison's disease is the most typical example of primary adrenal insufficiency. Lack of cortisol leads to a decrease in cardiac output and the development of hypotension, a decrease in the secretory activity of the stomach, a decrease in glycogen synthesis and a decrease in blood glucose. With a lack of aldosterone, the mineral metabolism is broken - the body loses sodium, and the potassium level increases. This leads to violations of the kidneys (reducing of glomerular filtration) and the heart (reducing of cardiac output, rhythm disturbances).
Symptoms of insufficiency of the adrenal cortex
Treatment of insufficiency of the adrenal cortex
With mild forms of the disease, hormone replacement therapy is prescribed, as well as a special diet. In severe cases, constant hormone therapy is used.
Treatment of endocrine diseases in South Korea
Qualified doctors of medical centers and clinics in South Korea offer systemic diagnostics and treatment of thyroid diseases both surgically and non-surgically - radioiodine therapy.
For those who do not want to have surgery, medicine in South Korea is pleased to offer an oriental technique in the treatment of thyroid cancer, diabetes, endocrine disorders, menopause, disorders of the pituitary gland, adrenal gland diseases, obesity.
Treatment of endocrine diseases in Singapore
Today endocrinological departments of the clinics of Singapore offer a comprehensive examination and treatment of the main diseases of the endocrine system, providing an international level of quality using the latest technology of world medicine. Thyroid specialist are continuously looking for new ways to treat, diagnose and prevent diabetes mellitus and its complications, disorders of the thyroid and parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pituitary gland and other endocrine glands.
*There are contraindications. Consultation of a specialist is recommended.
*All information on the site is a reference.